The 1928 Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide Page: 54
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THE TEXAS ALMANAC.
during the latter half of the eighteenth
century, but it was not until after the
purchase of the great Territory of Louis-
iana by the United States in 1803 that im-
migration from the United States began to
trickle into Texas. It was not long after
the United States and Texas border lines
met that the infiltration of Americans be-
gan, and there was an era of filibustering
under the famous Phillip Nolan and others
when attempts were made to set up an in-
dependent Republic in East Texas, but
they were not successful.
The achievement of Mexican independ-
ence from Spain, 1821-24, encouraged
Americans who had .their eyes on Texas.
Moses Austin of Missouri had journeyed
to Mexico and obtained a permit to settle
a colony in Texas. Though he died short-
ly after his return to Missouri, his son,
Stephen F. Austin, carried out his plans,
settling several hundred families in 1821
on the banks of the Brazos at old Wash-
ington in the present county of Washing-
ton. There followed a period of rapid
colonization by Americans under the "em-
presario system," by which individuals
were granted large tracts of land for colo-
At first the Mexican Government en-
couraged this settlement, but friction soon
arose between Anglo-Saxon and Latin, and
Mexico reversed her policy of attracting
Americans to the fertile soils of Texas.
First difficulties arose between mem-
bers of the Edwards Colony around Nac-
ogdoches and Spanish settlers who had
been in that part of the State since early
Spanish colonization attempts. In this af-
fair the members of Austin's Colony ap-
parently sympathized with the Mexican
Government, but they became embittered
when Stephen F. Austin was thrown into
prison while on a mission to Mexico to ob-
tain a separation of Texas from Coahuila
for administrative purposes. In the mean-
time armed conflict between colonists and
Spanish troops had taken place at Velasco,
Anahuac and Gonzales over customs regu-
lations and attempts of the Mexicans to
disarm the American settlers.
Texas Becomes a Republic.
Late in 1835 a convention was held at
San Felipe, a Provisional Government or-
ganized and Sam Houston selected com-
mander of the armed forces. A Mexican
Army, under Gen. Cos, marched into Texas
with the purpose of disarming Texans.
His forces were driven out of San Antonio
by Americans under Gen. Edward Burleson
and Ben Milam, but a large army under
Santa Anna marched into Texas early in
1836 and laid siege to the city.
While Santa Anna's forces were besieg-
ing the Alamo at San Antonio, a second
convention was called at Washington on
the Brazos and, on March 2, 1836, an inde-
pendent Republic was declared and David
G. Burnet was named President. Four days
later, on March 6, the Alamo fell with the
loss of every defender, depriving the new-
born Republic of such able leaders as
Travis, Bowie and Crockett. On March 27,
following Fannin's surrender at the Bat-
tle of Coleto, his entire force was marched
out of Goliad under guard and shot down.
Battle of San Jacinto.
The army of Santa Anna advanced rap-
idly eastward across Texas, driving the
colonists before it. Gen. Sam Houston, in
command of the Texas forces, decided to
make his stand at the junction of the San
Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou near
Harrisburg. Here, on April 21, 1836, he
attacked and completely routed the supe-
rior force of Santa Anna, who was cap-
tured with several hundred other Mexi-
By the treaty of Velasco, following the
i.attle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna agreed
to return to Mexico and use his influence
to obtain Mexican recognition of Texas in-
dependence. During the period 1836-46
Texas was an independent Republic under
the successive administrations of Presi-
dents David G. Burnet, Sam Houston,
Mirabeau B. Lamar, Sam Houston (sec-
ond term) and Anson Jones.
But the little Republic was beset with
difficulties. Mexico had not relinquished
its claim and constantly offered a menace,
even sending over one or two military ex-
peditions; difficulties were experienced
with the various Indian tribes, and the
public debt mounted. The value 'of the
Texas paper dollar fell to about 2c. Hence
the offer of the United States to annex
Texas was readily accepted at a conven-
tion which met in Austin July 4, 1845. On
Feb. 16, 1846, President Jones retired in
favor of Gov. J. Pinckney Henderson.
By the treaty Texas retained its public
lands and its area included the present
eastern half of New Mexico (that portion
east of the Rio Grande), that part of Ok-
lahoma of today lying north of the Texas
Panhandle, Southwestern Kansas, a large
portion of Central Colorado and a section
of Wyoming After the close of the Mexi-
can War resulting from the annexation of
Texas, this territory was sold to the
States by Texas for $10,000,000.
State Enters Confederacy.
Texas from the first had been a slave
State. Its climate and agricultural indus-
tries, like those of the old Southern States,
were readily adaptable to slavery and, in-
deed, most Texans were natives of the
slave States east of the Mississippi. Hence
the growing bitterness between North and
South was of much concern to Texas.
Despite the protests of Sam Houston, who
was then Governor, a convention met at
Austin Jan. 28, 1861, and after four days
of deliberation drew up and adopted arti-
cles of secession. Houston, who had led
the Texas Army against Mexico and had
served two terms as President of the Re-
public, was deposed as Governor and Ed-
ward Clark, Lieutenant Governor, was in-
stalled in his place as Governor under the
Texas saw little of bloodshed during the
war, though there were several attempts
to invade the State through Galveston,
Sabine Pass and Brownsville. After the
surrender of Gen. Lee, Gen. Gordon Gran-
ger landed in Texas (June 18, 1865) and
shortly afterward A. J. Hamilton was ap-
pointed as the first Reconstruction Gover-
nor of Texas A constitutional convention
met in Austin in February, 1866, and
adopted articles following the suggestions
of President Andrew Johnson, and J. W.
Throckmorton was elected Governor.
At first it seemed as though reconstruc-
tion would be accomplished with ease, but
the United States Congress did not agree
with President Johnson's plans and, in
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The 1928 Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide, book, 1928~; Dallas, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123786/m1/57/: accessed April 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.