The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926 Page: 32
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
He had taken twenty-three horses and mules with Mexican blankets,
saddles and arms.'"
On April 4, 1855, Captain John Work wrote to Governor Pease
giving an account of a campaign against hostile Indians, in which
he had taken part. Major Simonson was in command of the cam-
paign, which had been an arduous one, for they had traveled two
thousand miles through the north and west since they left San
Antonio. They had seen no Indians, and the spies or scouts, which
Major Simonson had sent out on crossing the Limpia, brought the
report that the Apaches had crossed it into New Mexico. They
had seen from the mountains the large force of five hundred troops
with ninety-five wagons, a thousand animals, and cannon, and they
would not risk a fight.7"
One of the most interesting expeditions was that of Captain
J. H. Callahan in September, 1855. Governor Pease in his mes-
sage to the Legislature, November 5, 1855, informed that body of
unauthorized attempts to punish the Lipans. Citizens were trying
then to raise volunteers to enter Mexico and November 15 was set
for assembling. The term of service for Captain Callahan's com-
pany had not expired until October 20, but he had undertaken a
campaign without authority, and citizens from Hays, Guadalupe,
Bexar, and other counties had joined him, so that his force num-
bered one hundred and fifteen men. With this party he pursued
across the Rio Grande into Mexico a party of Lipans who had
been harassing the settlers. Captain Callahan occupied Piedras
Negras for the night. The Mexican authorities at first favored
and aided his crossing, aware of his intentions, but later they
joined the Indians in an attack on him, after which, in order to
cover his retreat he had been obliged to burn the town. On the
receipt of Captain Callahan's report, the Governor justified his
crossing the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Lipans with stolen prop-
erty, but not his occupation of the town, and he was directed to
retire within the State. When it was learned that the Mexicans
had joined the Indians against him, the state government justified
all that he did, and excused his burning Piedras Negras.72
"oShaw to Bell, September 22, 1852, Army Papers, 1842-1877, Texas
71Work to Pease, April 4, 1855, Indian Affairs, 1845-1860, Texas State
"Message of Governor Pease, November 5, 1855, Pamphlet, 31-33, Texas
Collection, University of Texas.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926, periodical, 1926; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117141/m1/40/: accessed October 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.